As wood was rarely used in those times, all its buildings were constructed out of earth. People dug houses and rooms downward from the earth and built with dried bricks.
Jiaohe’s main street was long and went down to the center of the islet (1650 m in length, 300 m wide) that divided the city into two parts. The western part was for common people, and the rulers lived in the east. In the northwestern part of the city, there is a Buddhist monastery and around China’s oldest Buddhist stupa, there are 25 smaller stupas that are built in all directions.